Translation & Sermon by Nate Wilson for Christ The Redeemer Church Manhattan KS, 15 Nov 2015
8 Y’all be alert; be awake!
Your opponent, an accuser,
goes around like a lion, roaring,
seeking for someone he might swallow down .
9 You solid ones in the faith must stand against him,
knowing the same kind of sufferings to be consummated by y’alls brotherhood in the world.
10 And after y’all have suffered a few [things],
the God of all grace who called y’all into His eternal glory in Christ Jesus will Himself renew [y’all],
He will confirm, strengthen, [and] establish .
11 To Him belong the glory and the power forever and ever! Amen.
· In 1 Peter 5:8 and following, we have Peter’s parting exhortation, ending his first general epistle.
· He gives three commands – 3 imperative verbs addressed to all the church: Be alert, Be awake, and Stand against the Devil. Let’s look at them:
· The first command is: νήψατε “Be alert/sober/self-controlled”
o Peter started out the epistle talking about this sober-mindedness: “Therefore, after girding up the loins of y’all’s mind, being sober, perfectly start hoping upon the grace which is being brought to y’all in the revelation of Jesus Christ” (1 Pet. 1:13, NAW)
o And he reiterated it in 4:7 “the end of all things has drawn near, therefore y’all be reasonable and alert for the purpose of prayers.” (NAW)
o Thayer’s Lexicon defines this Greek word nephw in terms of being “calm and collected” and also in terms of being “temperate” – not dulling your mind with too much food or alcohol or even with games or entertainment, so that when a real crisis comes, you can snap into action quickly, think clearly, and make wise decisions.
o What kind of things make your mind sluggish?
§ You may need to exercise self-discipline to indulge less in those things. Maybe it’s internet browsing, or video gaming, or movie-watching, or sports, or some other activity which has begun to be a time-waster and is preventing you from being used by God for good deeds.
§ Do you have a tendency to put the gears of your mind in neutral? We had a guest at our house not too long ago who seemed to fill every unoccupied minute of his time by playing online chess. I was amazed at his ability to make advanced strategy moves while also dealing with the complex social interactions of a household with 12 children! I didn’t ask him, but I think he was doing it to exercise his mind and increase his capacity to think about a lot of complex things at once. That might not be the best application of this scriptural command, but you may need to challenge laziness in the character of you mind and take on some new responsibilities that will advance God’s kingdom and bring glory to Him in some way.
§ Of course there is a tension that has to be kept between getting adequate rest and staying alert. It’s possible to go too far in the direction of busyness just as it is possible to go too far in the direction of indolence, but is that tension there in your life? Are you working on getting the right balance? Are you confessing to God your failures when you have been lazy or when you have been a workaholic? Are you calling for His help to get it right?
o The Greek Aorist tense of this command might indicate that the ancient churches in Turkey weren’t doing a good job of this and needed to “start” being more sober.
· Now, the Second Command is: γρηγορήσατε “Be awake/vigilant/watchful/alert”
o It is related to the first command:
§ It denotes “staying awake” instead of sleeping,
§ and it implies keeping an eye out for what’s going on around you.
o Peter may have been recalling to mind the time when Jesus had given this same command to him in the garden of Gethsemane: “Stay awake and keep praying so that y’all might not enter into temptation, for the spirit is eager, yet the flesh is weak” (Matt. 26:41, NAW, cf. Col. 4:2) Prayer is an important way to use your mind for good at any time.
· The main reason here to be alert and awake is that the Devil is trying to get you:
o He is called your “adversary/opponent/enemy” here in v.8. The Greek word ἀντίδικος generally refers to a plaintiff in a court case who is literally “against” you being found on the “right” side of the law (Mt. 5:25).
o We have seen in our scripture readings earlier in this worship service, how the devil stood in the court of heaven
§ to antagonize Job (ch. 1-2),
§ to speak against Joshua the high priest (Zecheriah 3:1ff),
§ and even to challenge Jesus (Luke 3).
o But Isaiah 41:10-11 speaks of the fate of all our adversaries (including the Devil), “Fear not; for I am with thee... I am thy God, who have strengthened thee; and I have helped thee, and have established thee with my just right hand. Behold, all thine adversaries shall be ashamed and confounded; for they shall be as if they were not: and all thine opponents shall perish” (Brenton). Ultimately, Jesus spoke of “the lake of fire prepared for the devil and his angels” (Mat. 25:41, cf. Rev. 20:10).
o The adversary is also called diabolos in this verse, the pronunciation of which has mutated into “Devil.” This word is often translated into English as “accuser,”
§ (and here, by the way, the word “accuser” has no definite article in Greek, so it could just as well be translated “an accuser” as “the Devil” – but either way it’s talking about the same supernatural person).
§ This Greek word literally means someone who “throws” things “at” people. He is constantly lobbing bad ideas at us,
o like he did to David in 1 Chron 21:1 “Hey, go find out how many fighting men in your kingdom so you can calculate your risks in battle and not have to trust God anymore for victories.”
o Or to Jesus, “Sure, Your father said that you were His beloved son, but who’s going to believe that unless you turn these stones into bread and jump off the temple roof to prove that you are the Son of God.” Really bad idea.
o “Oh, I’d better find out what so-and-so just posted about me.” Or,
o “I wonder what would turn up in a Google search if I typed in this edgy word?”
o or “Judas, I bet you could make some money if you told the priests where Jesus’ hideout was during Passover!” (John 13:2)
§ Just as Satan stands before God looking for an angle to accuse you of sin and claim you as his possession, so also Satan lobs ideas into our heads to bait us into sin and become his quislings. He must be resisted!
o The Bible also tells us: Luke 8:12 “...the devil comes and takes away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.” (NKJV)
o John 8:44 “...The Devil... is a liar and the father of lies.” (NASB)
o He lays traps and snares to condemn you (1 Tim 3:6-7).
o The consistent picture of a “roaring” lion in the Greek Old Testament is of a lion who is attacking its prey.
§ He’s not always successful, but he does keep trying (Luke 4:13). I read recently on creation.com that lions have a high failure rate. Cats are always trying to sneak up on prey and kill it. They often miss, but they keep trying, hoping eventually they will land something.
§ If Satan is compared to this kind of feline predatory behavior, that’s why we have to stay on the lookout!
· Here’s our third command: ἀντίστητε “Resist,” or literally “Stand against” the Devil.
o The Greek word for “solid” which most of the standard English versions translate “steadfast” or “firm” actually matches the subject, not the verb, of the sentence in Greek, so I made it the subject in my English translation, “Against whom you solid ones in the faith must stand.” Perhaps this could be applied in terms of
§ the strongest believers stepping out front when persecution comes to make it easier for the weaker believers,
§ or those who are more discerning spiritually engaging the clash of ideas quickly rather than being laisez-faire while Satan ravages weak Christians with sins that you more mature believers don’t find tempting.
o In truth, we all must stand against the Devil. None of us gets a free lifetime pass in this struggle. And the way to resist/stand against him is to do it “with faith” in Jesus – not self-confidence, not with a crucifix made out of silver, not with magic words, but with a firm conviction that Jesus told you the truth and that you can trust Jesus to the very end to keep you right with God. That’s how you resist Satan.
o Revelation 2:10 “...the devil is about to cast some of you into prison, so that you will be tested, and you will have tribulation... Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.” (NASB) Keep trusting Jesus until the day you die!
· You can’t stand against the Devil if you are not fully trusting Christ to keep you safe.
o God told the Jews that they could not stand against their enemies as long as they had a soldier in their ranks who was so consumed with covetousness that he would steal stuff[*].
o God told the Jews that they could not “stand against” their enemies as long as they were worshipping idols[†].
o Later, in the book of Acts (19:13ff), when the seven sons of Sceva – who were not believers in Jesus – tried to cast out a demon, the demons terrorized them instead!
o The Lord is the source of your ability to “stand against” the Devil (Psalm 18:18)[‡].
o He said, “I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to contradict or resist” (Luke 21:15 NKJV).
o He says: “[B]e strong in the Lord and in the power of His might. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand [up to the methods] of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having girded your waist with truth, having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; above all, taking the shield of faith with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; praying always...” (Eph. 6:10-18, NKJV)
· In the second part of v.9, Peter gives us one strategy for resisting the devil and enduring suffering: He says you can endure suffering because you know that other brothers and sisters in Christ are also enduring suffering now (just as they have endured persecution throughout history).
o Not only have they endured suffering successfully, but God has used their suffering for good. The verb Peter uses, epi-teleisthai literally means “to be complete upon.”
§ Of the 18x it is used in the Greek Bible, all but one has to do with someone completing a sacrifice to God as an act of worship or of a person’s spiritual sanctification[§].
§ The picture I get here is of Christians refusing to worship Caesar – worshipping Jesus alone, and then suffering persecution for it, but then the persecution itself becomes a tool in God’s hands to “put the finishing touches on” the sanctification of those Christians, such that what was intended for evil, God uses for good.
§ If we can offer ourselves and our suffering up to God as a sacrifice intended to glorify Him, God will use that suffering to mature and make us more holy.
§ That suffering might even bring the completion of your life on earth if God is done with He wanted you to do here. Then you will no longer be “in the world;” you will be with Christ in heaven (Phil. 1:23).
o If we remember that others have managed to resist the Devil despite persecution, it makes it easier to do so myself.
§ That’s one reason why we regularly include articles on the persecuted church in our church bulletins.
§ That’s also a good reason to read Christian biographies. Read Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, or more modern books like The Hiding Place or The Heavenly Man.
o To know that brother Yun survived having his fingernails ripped off one by one without giving in and denying his faith in Christ reassures me that I too can do anything through Christ who strengthens me.
o If I have to undergo persecution, I will be able to endure much more now that I know what the Apostles and Perpetua, and Corrie Ten Boom and Jim Elliot endured. Prepare yourself by reading their stories!
· So, that’s the three commands we are to obey: Be alert, Be awake, and Resist the Devil. Now for the four things Jesus will to for us in return:
· The title “the God of all grace” appears nowhere else in scripture,
o but we know from verse 5 above that “He gives grace to the humble.”
o We know from James 1 that “every good gift[**]” comes from God,
o and from 2 Corinthians 9:8 that “God is able to make [some grace? NO!] all grace abound toward you, that you, always having all sufficiency in all things, may have an abundance for every good work.” (NKJV)
o and Romans 8:32 “He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?” (KJV)
· This gracious, freely-giving God has “called you into His eternal glory.”
o This “calling” has been a theme throughout 1 Peter
§ 1:15 “the Holy One called you to be holy,”
§ 2:9 “He called you out of darkness into his glorious light that you may announce it,”
§ 2:12 “He called you to follow in His steps,”
§ 3:9 “you were called in order to inherit a blessing,”
§ and here in chapter 5, God “calls” us to come “into His eternal glory.”
o The eternality of that glory contrasts with the glory of man, which fades as fast as flowers,
o and it gives us hope to endure suffering for what we know will be a temporary time.
§ The Apostle Paul encouraged the Corinthians, “For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory” (2 Cor. 4:17, NKJV),
§ and while Paul suffered in prison chains, he wrote Timothy, “Therefore I endure all things for the sake of the elect, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory,” equating “eternal glory” with salvation (2 Tim. 2:10, NKJV).
o But note that this “calling” is qualified by the phrase “in/by Christ Jesus.”
§ If you don’t have the word “Jesus” in your Bible, Christ is still the same person, but it bothers me that some versions would leave it out when the latest scholarship agrees with the traditional Greek text and includes the proper name of Jesus.
§ But what does it mean to be called “in/by Christ”? Two pictures come to mind: one of our union with Christ and one of the mediatory office of Christ, both of which are found in Scripture:
1) Ephesians 1 and other passages like Colossians 3 speak of us as being “in Christ” – united with and “hidden” inside Him. The picture I get is of God the Father beaming with perfect delight at His Son Jesus and beckoning Him to come close, and there we are standing inside Christ’s robes, covered with His righteousness, so as He moves close to His Father, we move with Him, inside His robes. The Father only sees Christ’s righteousness, but as He embraces His son, He embraces us too. We are right there in the middle of that happy circle because we are “in Christ.”
2) The other picture interprets the preposition “in” as us being called “by the agency of” Christ, the picture being that God calls us to Himself by telling Jesus to call us, so Jesus calls us, and we come. This picture of God’s actions towards us being done through Christ as our mediator can be supported by passages like:
John 1:17 “For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ” and
Acts 10:36 “God sent [the Word] to the children of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ” God wanted us to hear His words, so He sent Jesus and Jesus spoke those words to us.
* He is our mediator and we are in union with Him.
· Now, if you will be alert and watchful and take a stand against the devil, you’re going to get tired, and you will take hits, but look at v.10. If you will do these three things, Christ Himself will do four things for you in return:
1) He will refresh/renew/[until you are] perfectly/restored (cf. Psalm 18:33, Heb. 13:21),
2) He will stabilize/establish/make you strong and firm so that you can keep standing (Psalm 51:12, 1 Thess. 3:13, 2 Thess. 3:3),
3) He will make you healthy and strong instead of weak and sick and infirm (Zech. 12:8, Rom. 5:6, 2Cor. 12:10), and
4) He will settle/establish/lit. “lay a foundation” so that you are steadfast (Psalm 48:8, Isaiah 14:32, Eph. 3:18, Col. 1:23).
o A lot of these are construction terms used throughout the Old Testament regarding the building and rebuilding of the temple, reminiscent of the spiritual house built of living stones that Peter mentioned in chapter 2.
o It’s also interesting that a lot of the other New Testament passages which use these same verbs say that it’s the preaching and believing of the Gospel which Jesus uses as the means to “establish, strengthen and renew” us!
o This is better than having the Red Cross in your supply train when you go into battle! If you are injured in this spiritual war, Jesus Himself is waiting behind the front lines, as it were, to stabilize you, bring you back to health, and make you good as new so you can get back to the front lines and overcome your adversary by His power.
· Now, the Bible also portrays Him as being on the battle-front as well, so really it’s appropriate that “all the glory” goes to Him when the war is over, and He becomes the potentate over all.
· This is a copy of what Peter wrote at the end of 4:11, where he also says that the “glory” belongs to Christ, and I think the KJV is right to include “the glory” along with “the power” here in 5:11.
· We’ve seen the theme of “glory” throughout 1 Peter:
o 1:7 “the trial of your faith might result in praise and glory when Christ is revealed,”
o 1:11 “prophecies of the sufferings of Christ and glory to follow,”
o 1:21 “God raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory,”
o 1:24 “the glory of man withers like grass,”
o 4:11 “To Christ be glory and power forever,”
o 4:13 “when Christ’s glory is revealed, you may also rejoice,”
o 4:14 “the Spirit of glory and of God rests on you,”
o 5:1 “I am a partaker in the glory to be revealed,”
o 5:4 “you shall receive a crown of glory,”
o 5:10 “God called us into His eternal glory.”
o This glory comes from God, and then is seen by mankind and lifted back up to God, who is both the source and the end point of glory.
· The same with “power:”
o “There is no authority except that which is given by God” (Rom. 13, John 19:11).
o He gives power to humans, and He will gather it all back to Himself on Judgment Day.
o What a consolation to Christians who are seeing power abused in the here and now:
§ Nero hanging Christians on crosses, dousing them with oil, and setting them on fire,
§ Representatives elected to stop tax-and-spend politics who instead turn around and raise the debt ceiling again,
§ Church pastors who tolerate or cover up sin instead of setting things right,
§ Even the husband who uses his power to abuse, belittle and bruise his wife,
§ When you see power abused in the here-and-now, remember that the balance of power will swing back to God, to whom all power belongs, and all who abused the power they were given will be brought to accountability by that Higher Power.
o Justice will be restored. And it’s not going to be by Superman; it’s going to be by Jesus!
o The abuses we see in the here and now are not the end of the story. The chickens are going to eventually come home to roost, and all glory and power are going to end up in Jesus’ hands and used rightly for good, and that will be the end of the story! Praise be to God!
8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary [the] devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:
8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary [the] devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.
8 Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary [the] devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.
8 Be of sober spirit, be on the alert. Your adversary, [the] devil, prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour.
8 Be self-controlled [and] alert. Your enemy [the] devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour.
9 Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same X afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.
9 Resist him, steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same X sufferings are experienced by your brotherhood in the world.
9 Resist him, firm in
9 [But] resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same [experiences] of suffering are being accomplished by your brethren who are in the world.
9 Resist him, standing firm in the faith, [because] you know that X
your brothers through
10 ῾Ο δὲ Θεὸς πάσηςGSF χάριτοςGSF, ὁ καλέσαςAAP-NSM ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν αἰώνιονASF αὐτοῦ δόξανASF ἐν Χριστῳ ᾿Ιησοῦ ὀλίγον παθόνταςAAP-APM, αὐτὸς καταρτίσειFAI-3S [ὑμᾶς], στηρίξειFAI-3S, σθενώσειFAI-3S, θεμελιώσει·
10 But after y’all have suffered a few [things] the God of all grace who called y’all into His eternal glory in Christ Jesus will Himself renew [y’all], He will confirm, strengthen, [and] establish.
10 But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while,X make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you.
10 But may the God of all grace, who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a while, X perfect, establish, strengthen, [and] settle you.
10 And after you have suffered a little [while], the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ X, will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, [and] establish [you].
10 After you have suffered [for] a little [while], the God of all grace, who called you to His eternal glory in Christ X, will Himself perfect, confirm, strengthen and establish [you].
10 And the God of all grace, who called you to his eternal glory in Christ X, after you have suffered a little [while], will himself restore [you] [and] make [you] strong, firm [and] steadfast.
11 αὐτῳ [ἡ δοξά καὶ] τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]· ἀμήν.
11 To Him belong the glory and the power forever and ever, amen.
11 To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
11 To Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
11 To him be the dominion forever and ever. Amen.
11 To Him be dominion forever and ever. Amen.
11 To him be the power for ever and ever. Amen.
[*] Joshua 7:13 “Rise, sanctify the people and tell them to sanctify themselves for the morrow: thus says the Lord God of Israel, The accursed thing is among you; ye shall not be able to stand before your enemies, until ye shall have removed the cursed thing from among you.” ~Brenton
[†] Judges 2:13-14 Brenton “And they provoked the Lord, and forsook him, and served Baal and the Astartes. And the Lord was very angry with Israel; and he gave them into the hands of the spoilers, and they spoiled them; and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, and they could not any longer resist their enemies”
[‡] “the Lord became my resistance” cf. Ps. 37:24
[§] See references in the endnotes linked to the comparative translation section at the end.
[**] This is actually the synonym dwron rather than the word charis.
 Where the
traditional Patriarchal edition of the Greek Bible is challenged by the Textus Receptus or by the modern critical
editions, I note that. When an English translation adds words not in the Greek
text, but does not indicate it has done so by the use of italics (or greyed-out
text), I put the added words in [square brackets]. When one English version
chooses a wording which is different from all the other translations, I underline
it. When a version chooses a translation which, in my opinion, either departs
too far from the root meaning of the Greek word or departs too far from the
grammar form of the original Greek word, I use
strikeout. And when an
English version omits a word which is in the Greek text, I insert an X.
(Sometimes I will place the X at the end of a word if the Greek word is plural
but the English translation is singular.) I have also tried to use colors to
help the reader see correlations between the Greek original and the various
translations when there are more than two different translations of a Greek
 The Textus Receptus inserts the word ‘οτι (following P72), and the Latin, Syriac, and Coptic versions all interpret it as a hoti clause, according to Nestle-Aland. The majority of Greek manuscripts, including the majority of the oldest-known ones supports the Patristic edition above.
 Satan is characterized as doing this in Job 1:7 & 2:2 (εμ+περιπατησας). Lions do this too – make rounds in a sizeable territory.
 Modern critical editions render this verb in the Aorist Infinitive form (καταπιειν) based on the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, but P72 and A support the reading of the majority text, so I see no
compelling reason to join the modern critics in doubting the accuracy of the traditional text here.
 cf. 1 Pet. 1:13 and 4:7. Thayer’s Lexicon defines nephw in terms of being “calm and collected” and also in terms of being “temperate”. The Aorist tense might indicate that the hearers weren’t doing a good job of this and needed to “start” being sober, or it might just be somehow emphatic.
 cf. Matthew 24:42, Mark 13:33-37, and Matthew 26:41, Acts 20:29-31, Colossians 4:2, Revelation 3:1-3
 This term generally refers to a plaintiff in a court case who is literally “against” you being found on the “right” side of the law (Mt. 5:25, cf. Job 1-2, Zecheriah 3:1ff). Isaiah 41:10-11 speaks of the fate of this and all our adversaries (cf. Rev. 20:10 & Mat. 25:41).
 The Greek word for “Devil” literally means someone who “throws” things “at” people. The word is also translated “accuser,” (and here, by the way, the word “accuser” had no definite article in Greek, so it could just as well be translated “an accuser” as “the Devil”). cf. 1 Chron 21:1, John 13:2, Luke 8:12, John 8:44, 1 John 3:8, Revelation 2:10.
 Only here in the NT. The consistent picture of a “roaring” lion in the Greek Old Testament is of a lion who is in the act of attacking its prey (Judges 14:5; Psalms 22:13; 104:21; Jeremiah 2:15; Ezekiel 22:25; Hosea 11:10; Zephaniah 3:3; Zechariah 11:3).
 Mss. P72, א, and B have a “the” here modifying “world.” It makes no difference in translation, though, since there is only one existing world.
 Curiously, the modern critical editors rejected the Indicative spelling of P72, א, B, and A in favor of the majority text!
 Most of the standard English versions translate the word stereoi as an adverb describing how we are to go about resisting the Devil. However, because it has gender, number and case matching the subject of the verb, I think it ought to be interpreted as the subject rather than as part of the verb. You can’t stand against the Devil if you are not fully trusting Christ to keep you safe (Joshua 7:13, Judges 2:13-14, Acts 19:13ff). The Lord is your antihistamine, the source of your ability to stand against the Devil (Psalm 18:18 εγενετο κυριος αντιστηριγμα μου, cf. 37:24). He said, “I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to contradict or resist” (Luke 21:15, cf. Ephesians 6:10-18).
 Literally means “to be complete upon.” Of the 18 times it is used in the Greek Bible, all but one (Esther 8:14, which is the fulfillment of a political process) has to do either with someone completing a sacrifice to God as an act of worship (Lev. 6:22, Judges 11:39 & 20:10, Esther 9:27, Zach 4:9, Rom 15:28, 2 Cor 8:6 & 11, Heb. 8:5 & 9:6) or of a person’s spiritual sanctification (Num. 23:23, 1 Sam. 3:12, 2 Cor. 7:1, Gal. 3:3, Phil. 1:6).
 This is the same brotherhood mentioned in 2:17 (“love the brotherhood”) and nowhere else in the Bible.
 The Textus Receptus follows a couple of late Greek manuscripts which read ημας, and the Vulgate follows this reading as well, but the Greek manuscripts overwhelmingly support the 2nd plural spelling of the pronoun.
 Because “Jesus” is omitted by the Siniaticus and the Vaticanus manuscripts, the NASB, NIV, and ESV translators omitted the name, even though the name is included in the UBS critical edition of the Greek New Testament. It is in the majority of Greek manuscripts (including P72 and A, so it has witnesses every bit as ancient as the manuscripts which omit it), and it’s in practically all the ancient Latin, Syriac, European and African versions. I see no good reason why the modern English versions should omit it. The fact that Jesus is the Christ can be established elsewhere in the Bible, however, so the meaning is not changed by the omission of the proper name.
 The Textus Receptus follows the majority of Greek manuscripts in rendering these last four verbs as Aorist Active Optatives instead of Future Indicatives. Both forms are pretty similar in meaning, but this variant is the reason why the KJV translates this as a wish (“May he establish...”), whereas the modern versions translate it as a promise (“He will establish...”). I don’t think God would have allowed Peter to record a wish like this if it were not to come true, so, either way, I think we can take it as a list of what Christ will actually do, and we can look forward to these results.
 Modern critical editions omit this word because it is not to be found in any Greek manuscript between the first and 9th centuries.
 The title “the God of all grace” appears nowhere else in scripture, but cf. verse 5, James 1:17, 2 Cor. 9:8.
 This “calling” has been a theme throughout 1 Peter (1:15, 2:9, 2:21, and 3:9). Cf. 2 Cor. 4:17, 2 Tim. 2:10. But what does it mean to be called “in/by Christ”? Two pictures come to mind, both of which fit the rest of scripture: 1) Fellowship (Ephesians 1, Colossians 3), and 2) Mediation (John 1:17, Acts 10:36, 1 Peter 2:5 and 4:11b).
 If you will do these three things, Christ
Himself will do four things for you in return:
1) He will refresh/renew/[until you are] perfectly/restored (cf. Psalm 18:33, Heb. 13:21),
2) He will stabilize/establish/make strong and firm so that you can keep standing (Psalm 51:12, 1 Thess. 3:13, 2 Thess. 3:3),
3) He will make you healthy/strong instead of weak/sick/infirm (hapex legomenon - alpha privative forms in Zech. 12:8, Rom. 5:6, 2Cor. 12:10),
4) He will settle/establish/lit. “lay a foundation” so that you are steadfast (Psalm 48:8, Isaiah 14:32, Eph. 3:18, Col. 1:23)
A lot of these are construction terms used throughout the Old Testament regarding the building and rebuilding of the temple, reminiscent of the spiritual house built of living stones that Peter mentioned in ch.2. It’s also interesting to note that a lot of this building up is done through preaching and believing the Gospel (see NT cross references).
 The bracketed words at the beginning and the end of this verse are not found in modern critical editions of the GNT because they’re not in P72 or B (also doxa is not in A), yet modern English versions which follow the modern critical editions, omit “the glory” but keep the “and ever.” Both are found in the ancient Coptic, Syriac, and Latin translations as well as in the majority of Greek manuscripts, including at least one of the four oldest manuscripts, and it is word-for-word the same as the end of 4:11, so I see no reason to question the traditional text.
 cf. copy of this verse in 4:11, cf. 5:6. “Glory” is also a theme throughout 1 Peter: (1:7, 1:11, 1:21, 1:24, 4:11, 4:13, 4:14, 5:1, 5:4, 5:10). This glory comes from God and is seen by mankind and is lifted back up to God who is both the source and the end point of glory. The same with power. “There is no authority except that which is given by God” (Rom. 13, John 19:11).